The harm of dyslipidemia is bigger than imagination, can not be ignored!
Dyslipidemia is usually referred to in the plasma total cholesterol (TC) and/or increase the content of triglyceride (TG), because of lipid insoluble or slightly soluble in water, so we must combine with proteins exist in the form of lipoprotein, such ability in the blood circulation, so the dyslipidemia is through high lipoprotein, called high lipoprotein hematic disease, also known as hyperlipidemia.Hyperlipidemia also refers to a variety of dyslipidemia, including an increase in low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and a decrease in high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C).Dyslipidemia is a potential cause and aggravating risk factor of many diseases.For example, dyslipidemia is a risk factor for cardiovascular diseases and an independent risk factor for renal dysfunction, which can also affect the condition of diabetes or lead to gastroesophageal reflux disease.In addition, dyslipidemia will also affect the health of pregnant women and fetuses.1. Atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) In recent years, the incidence of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) has been increasing, which may pose a serious threat to human health and even life safety.Atherosclerosis occurs in two or more arterial beds.Atherosclerosis is the main pathological basis of ASCVD.Among them, coronary heart disease is also known as coronary atherosclerotic heart disease, the pathogenesis of this disease is relatively complex, and there are many causes, but dyslipidemia is one of the important factors to induce and aggravate coronary atherosclerosis.In the pathogenesis of coronary heart disease, inflammation plays a key role. Studies have found that dyslipidemia may aggravate inflammation, thus aggravating vascular endothelial injury.2. Studies in chronic kidney disease have shown that when dyslipidemia occurs, circulating lipids from various sources overflow into non-adipose tissues, that is, ectopic lipid accumulation.Some free fatty acids and triglycerides accumulate in glomerular and tubulointerstitial cells, thereby exacerbating atherosclerosis in renal microcirculation and stimulating the release of inflammatory cytokines and growth factors.And triglycerides in the blood of the patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) and the accumulation of lipid metabolic breakdown products, can also lead to renal parenchyma in vascular atherosclerosis or play the role of promoting inflammatory reaction induced by lipid toxicity will also promote the progress of glomerular sclerosis, and its accumulation can also cause endoplasmic reticulum stress and, in turn, increases the generation of reactive oxygen species, and can directly produce toxic effects to the kidneys.In general, dyslipidemia can induce and promote the progression of chronic kidney disease through a variety of different pathways, or indirectly damage the kidney through systemic inflammation and oxidative stress.Diabetes It has been found that the risk of developing diabetes increases with the increase of triglycerides, and fasting blood glucose levels also increase with the increase of triglycerides, plasma total cholesterol, and low density lipoprotein cholesterol.The lipid toxicity of dyslipidemia may further interfere with insulin utilization in the body and promote the occurrence and development of type 2 diabetes mellitus and its complications.Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) refers to a series of gastrointestinal motility disorders caused by reflux of gastric contents into the esophagus or oral cavity (including throat), which can be divided into non-erosive reflux disease (NERD) and erosive esophagitis (EE).Barrett’s esophagus (BE) and esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC) are considered as complications of GASTROesophageal reflux disease.Some studies believe that dyslipidemia is an obvious inducing factor of gastroesophageal reflux disease.Figure source network: Invasion of inflammatory factors, oxidative stress, endoplasmic reticulum stress, etc., results in decreased pressure of the lower esophageal sphincter, increased transient relaxation of the lower esophageal sphincter, and decreased anti-reflux defense mechanism.Reduced anti-reflux defense mechanisms also include reduced esophageal clearance and impaired epithelial barrier function.Dyslipidemia can lead to gastroesophageal reflux disease through the above-mentioned mechanisms, and therefore is one of the risk factors.5. Studies in pregnancy have shown that maternal dyslipidemia may change the genetic regulation mode and cellular program of fetuses at different stages, thus affecting metabolic abnormalities such as insulin resistance, obesity, maternal cardiovascular disease (CVD) and other metabolic abnormalities in offspring at various ages.An obese mother with familial hypercholesterolemia may endanger the health of the fetus.Elevated cholesterol in the blood can lead to elevated fetal cholesterol levels in the second trimester of pregnancy, leading to the emergence of aortic fingerprints, and the offspring are also prone to significant atherosclerosis in adulthood.In recent years, the level of blood lipid in our population is gradually increasing, and the incidence of various diseases caused by dyslipidemia has also increased significantly. Therefore, we should pay attention to the control of blood lipid, prevent the occurrence of dyslipidemia, so as to avoid inducing other more serious diseases.Lipids can be affected by diet and lifestyle, so we should eat healthily, exercise regularly and consciously maintain an ideal body weight in our daily life.If blood lipid cannot be regulated effectively by improving lifestyle, it needs to be treated with drugs under the guidance of doctors. Chinese Medical Association, Chinese Clinical Pharmacy Branch, Chinese Medical Association Magazine, et al. Xie YX, Wu G, Liu WN, et al. Guidelines for rational use of dyslipidemia at primary level [J]. Chinese Journal of General Practitioners, 2021(1):29-33. Wang J, Wang J, Wang J, et al. The role of hyperlipidemia in the pathogenesis of coronary artery disease [J]. Liu LAN, Wu Xueji, Li Yahui, et al. Relationship between dyslipidemia and chronic kidney disease [J]. Zhejiang Med, 2021(17):1918-1921. Yao JH, Duan ZJ, Wang J, et al. The role of hyperlipidemia and hypertension in diabetes mellitus [J]. Chinese Journal of Chronic Disease Prevention and Control, 2021(5):356-360. Wang Y, Wang Y, Wang Y, et al. The role of dyslipidemia in the pathogenesis of gastroesophageal reflux disease [J]. J Gastroenterol, 2017, 26 (4): 145-154. Wang J, Wang J, Wang J, et al. Dyslipidemia in pregnancy: a review [J]. Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology, 2016, 29 (1): 1-8.Guidelines for prevention and treatment of dyslipidemia in Chinese adults (2016 revised edition) [J]. Chinese Journal of Circulation, 2016(10): 937-950.