China is a “blushing country”, and Tibetans rank first in their ability to cure alcohol. Where do people drink last?
The Wine culture of the Chinese nation has a long history, and wine is an indispensable drink in modern society.But, as a nation with thousands of years of drinking history, how much can the Chinese actually drink?Is it really so?East Asians are more prone to blushing after drinking than those in other regions, and have even been dubbed “Asian blushing”.China is the nation of blushes, and blushes are notoriously bad drinkers.Is it true that the Chinese are not a drinking people?The key to how much alcohol you drink are two alcohol-reducing enzymes in the liver: alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) and acetaldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH).In the first step after drinking alcohol, alcohol will be transformed into toxic acetaldehyde under the action of ADH.In the second step, acetaldehyde is transformed into non-toxic acetic acid with the help of ALDH.The reason for the flush is that acetaldehyde produced in the first step causes blood vessels to dilate.www.awjs19.com In fact, the ability of Chinese people to cure alcohol in the first stage is no less than, or even better than other countries.Because Chinese people commonly carry a variant of the ADH1B gene, this greatly increases THE activity of ADH and reduces the accumulation of ethanol in the body.It can be said that the Chinese are born, perfect in the first stage of the cure!But in the second stage, our inadequacies are exposed.There is a mutation in the ALDH2 RS671 genotype of ALDH, which results in a decrease in ALDH activity and an inability to rapidly convert acetaldehyde to acetic acid.Cell Research pointed out that genome analysis of the whole Chinese nation found that the homozygous mutation rate of ALDH in Chinese was 4.50% and heterozygous mutation rate was 34.27%, significantly higher than that of European and African populations.Doi: 10.1038/ S41422-020-0322-9 This means that about one-third of the Chinese population is born with the mutant gene, and individuals with ALDH mutations are at higher risk of acetaldehyde accumulation.In addition, Chinese people have a stronger ability to produce acetaldehyde, which eventually leads to a large accumulation of acetaldehyde in the body, and the phenomenon of blushing when drinking is very common.It can also be said that Chinese people’s small amount of alcohol is written into our genes.Wine preference is strongly associated with ALDH mutations.Among Chinese men, the average alcohol intake was 157 g/week in those without ALDH mutations, 37 g/week in those with heterozygous mutations and 3 g/week in those with homozygous mutations, and 45%, 16% and 1% of them were drinkers, respectively.ADH mutation also had a certain effect on alcohol consumption, which was the highest in the non-mutant group and the lowest in homozygous mutation group, but the effect was not as obvious as ALDH mutation.Doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736(18)31772-0 The study also found that people in northern China do drink more alcohol than people in the south.Because there are fewer ALDH mutations in northern populations, alcohol metabolism is stronger than in southern populations.Among ethnic groups, Tibetan, Mongolian and Yi ethnic groups had the least ALDH mutation, and their ability to cure alcohol ranked first.Han Chinese in lingnan and southeast China drink the least.Doi: 10.1038/ S41422-020-0322-9To some extent, it is possible to practice alcohol, because repeated drinking can gradually adjust the body to the symptoms of dizziness, a feeling of increased alcohol consumption.Studies have shown that after long-term drinking, subjective alcohol tolerance will be improved to varying degrees.But objectively, there was no significant increase in the number of antialcoholic enzymes and no change in gene mutation rate.Alcohol is not really less harmful to the body, and the amount of alcohol practiced is actually an illusion.And some people through exercise can be thousands of cups not drunk, in fact, the enzyme is very high innate activity, the potential was dug out.Well, since we’re naturally light drinkers, why don’t we just drink, because it’s the booze that kills us?Indeed, many past studies have linked moderate alcohol consumption with a reduced risk of cardiovascular disease.The Lancet reports a U-shaped association between alcohol intake and the incidence of stroke, cerebral hemorrhage and acute myocardial infarction, meaning that moderate drinking appears to reduce the risk of these diseases compared with abstainers and alcoholics.Doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736(18)31772-0 Traditional epidemiological analysis found that about 64.5% of adult males in the Chinese population drink alcohol, with an average daily alcohol intake of about 30 grams.Men seemed to have a lower risk of all three diseases when they drank about 100 grams of alcohol a week.But the effect was less pronounced among women, possibly because women drink less and data collection is skewed.But in genetic epidemiological analyses, when researchers reclassified the Chinese population based on the genotype of ADH and ALDH, the U-shaped association disappeared.Moderate alcohol consumption in men showed no protective effect against stroke, cerebral hemorrhage or acute heart attack, and the risk steadily increased with alcohol consumption.In women, ADH and ALDH variants were not significantly associated with these diseases.Doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736(18)31772-0 On this basis, the Lancet argues that the U-shaped association does not imply that moderate alcohol consumption is good for health.In fact, it may be because people with cardiovascular disease are more restrained or even abstainer, which leads to reverse causality, leading to the erroneous conclusion that abstaining from drinking increases cardiovascular disease.The ADH and ALDH genotypes were more objective, suggesting that drinking a small amount of alcohol can be pleasurable but harmful, and that drinking less of whatever alcohol is possible is better.In fact, our country also has clear recommendations for residents to drink alcohol.Daily alcohol intake should not exceed 25 grams, preferably 15 grams.Based on 15 grams, 56.8 percent of men and 27.8 percent of women drink too much alcohol.As a result, The Chinese are in the awkward position of not being able to drink but drinking a lot.It can be seen that Chinese people are not prominent drinkers.The glass is in hand, and it’s best to reach it.1, Yanan Cao, et al. ChinaMAP analytics of deep whole genome sequences in 10,588 individuals. Cell Res. 2020;30(9):717-731. doi: 10.1038/s41422-020-0322-9.2 Iona Y Millwood,et al. Conventional and genetic evidence on alcohol and vascular disease aetiology: a prospective study of 500 000 men and women in China. Lancet. 2019; 393(10183):1831-1842. doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736(18)31772-0.3.Scientific research Report on Dietary Guidelines for Chinese residents (2021). Chinese Nutrition Society, January 2021.